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There are many project management frameworks in existence. However, the one that is probably the most widely used is the one from the Project Management Institute(PMI), which publishes the framework in its PMBOK Guide and Standards. The Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) Guide has essentially become the standard for documenting the project management profession. Most of the information is based on PMI information but also includes information from other project management organizations and standards used around the world.

As a quick introduction to project management, the following topics are covered first on this site:

  • Knowledge Areas
  • Process Groups
  • Processes
  • Project
  • Project Management
  • Program
  • Program Management
  • Portfolio
  • Portfolio Management
  • Project Management Office
  • Project Manager
The basics of the above topics are discussed with links provided for additional information.


Knowledge Areas

The PMI framework divides the PM body of knowledge into 10 areas:


Process Groups

PMI also defines many project management processes. These processes are categorized into 5 Process Groups:

  • Initiating
  • Planning
  • Executing
  • Monitoring and Controlling
  • Closing


Processes

The processes as defined by PMI are:

  • Integration Management
    • Initiating
      • Develop Project Charter
    • Planning
      • Develop Project Management Plan
    • Executing
      • Direct and Manage Project Work
    • Monitoring and Controlling
      • Monitor and Control Project Work
      • Perform Integrated Change Control
    • Closing
      • Close Project or Phase
  • Scope Management
    • Initiating
      • none
    • Planning
      • Plan Scope Management
      • Collect Requirements
      • Define Scope
      • Create WBS
    • Executing
      • none
    • Monitoring and Controlling
      • Validate Scope
      • Control Scope
    • Closing
      • none
  • Time Management
    • Initiating
      • none
    • Planning
      • Plan Schedule Management
      • Define Activities
      • Sequence Activities
      • Estimate Activity Resources
      • Estimate Activity Durations
      • Develop Schedule
    • Executing
      • none
    • Monitoring and Controlling
      • Control Schedule
    • Closing
      • none
  • Cost Management
    • Initiating
      • none
    • Planning
      • Plan Cost Management
      • Estimate Costs
      • Determine Budget
    • Executing
      • none
    • Monitoring and Controlling
      • Control Costs
    • Closing
      • none
  • Quality Management
    • Initiating
      • none
    • Planning
      • Plan Quality Management
    • Executing
      • Perform Quality Assurance
    • Monitoring and Controlling
      • Control Quality
    • Closing
      • none
  • Human Resource Management
    • Initiating
      • none
    • Planning
      • Plan Human Resource Management
    • Executing
      • Acquire Project Team
      • Develop Project Team
      • Manage Project Team
    • Monitoring and Controlling
      • none
    • Closing
      • none
  • Communications Management
    • Initiating
      • none
    • Planning
      • Plan Communications Management
    • Executing
      • Manage Communications
    • Monitoring and Controlling
      • Control Communications
    • Closing
      • none
  • Risk Management
    • Initiating
      • none
    • Planning
      • Plan Risk Management
      • Identify Risks
      • Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis
      • Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis
      • Plan Risk Responses
    • Executing
      • none
    • Monitoring and Controlling
      • Control Risks
    • Closing
      • none
  • Procurement Management
    • Initiating
      • none
    • Planning
      • Plan Procurement Management
    • Executing
      • Conduct Procurements
    • Monitoring and Controlling
      • Control Procurements
    • Closing
      • Close Procurements
  • Stakeholder Management
    • Initiating
      • Identify Stakeholders
    • Planning
      • Plan Stakeholder Management
    • Executing
      • Manage Stakeholder Engagement
    • Monitoring and Controlling
      • Control Stakeholder Engagement
    • Closing
      • none


Project

A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result.

A project can create:

  • A product that can be either a component of another item, an enhancement of an item, or an end item in itself
  • A service or a capability to perform a service (e.g., a business function that supports production or distribution)
  • An improvement in the existing product or service lines (e.g., A Six Sigma project undertaken to reduce defects)
  • A result such as an outcome or document (e.g., a research project that develops knowledge that can be used to determine whether a trend exists or a new process will benefit society)


Project Management

Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and tecniques to project activities to meet the project requirements.

Project management is accomplished through the appropriate application and integration of the 47 logically grouped project management processes, which are categorized into 5 Progress Groups.

Organizational Project Management (OPM) is a strategy execution framework utilizing project, program, and portfolio management as well as organizational enabling practices to consistently and predictable deliver organizational strategy producing better performance, better results, and a sustainable competitive advantage.


Program

A program is defined as a group of related projects, subprograms, and program activities managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits not available from managing them individually.


Program Management

Program management is the application of knowledge,skills, tools, and techniques to a program in order to meet the program requirements and to obtain benefits and control not available by managing projects individually.


Portfolio

A portfolio refers to projects, programs, subportfolios, and operations managed as a group to achieve strategic objectives.


Portfolio Management

Portfolio management refers to the centralized management of one or more portfolios to achieve strategic objectives.

Projects are typically authorized as a result of one or more of the following strategic considerations:

  • Market demand
  • Strategic opportunity / business need
  • Social need
  • Environmental consideration
  • Customer request
  • Technological advance
  • Legal requirement


Project Management Office

A project management office (PMO) is a management structure that standardizes the project-related governance processes and facilitates the sharing of resources, methodologies, tools, and techniques.

PMO Structures

  • Supportive - PMOs that provide a consultative role to projects by supplying templates, best practices, traiing, access to information and lessons learned from other projects. This type of PMO serves as a project respository. The degree of control provided by the PMO is low.
  • Controlling - PMOs that provide support and require compliance through various means. Compliance may involve adopting project management frameworks or methodologies, using specific templates, forms and tools, or conformance to governance. The degree of control provided by the PMO is moderate.
  • Directive - PMOs that take control of the projects by directly managing the projects. The degree of control provided by the PMO is high.

A primary function of a PMO is to support project managers in a variety of way which may include, but are not limited to:

  • Managing shared resources across all projects administered by the PMO
  • Identifying and developing project management methodology, best practices, and standards
  • Coaching, mentoring, training, and oversight
  • Monitoring compliance with project management standards, policies, procedures, and templates by means of project audits
  • Developing and managing project policies, procedures, templates, and other shared documentation (organizational process assets)
  • Coordinating communication across projects

Operations are ongoing endeavors that produce repetitive outputs, with resources assigned to do basically the same set of tasks according to the standards institutionalized in a product life cycle.

Projects can intersect with operations at various points during the product life cycle, such as:

  • At each closeout phase
  • When developing a new product, upgrading a product, or expanding outputs
  • While improving operations or the product development processes
  • Until the end of the product life cycle

Business value is defined as the entire value of the business; the total sum of all tangible and intangible elements.


Project Manager

The project manager is the person assigned by the performing organization to lead the team that is responsible for achieving the project objectives.

Effective project management requires that the project manager possess the following competencies:

  • Knowledge - Refers to what the project manager knows about project management
  • Performance - Refers to what the project manager is able to do or accomplish while applying his or her project management knowledge.
  • Personal - Refers to how the project manager behaves when performing the project or related activity.

Important interpersonal skills of PM include:

  • Leadership
  • Team Building
  • Motivation
  • Communication
  • Influencing
  • Decision Making
  • Political and Cultural Awareness
  • Negotiation
  • Trust Building
  • Conflict Management
  • Coaching

Organization Project Management Maturity Model (OPM3) examines an enterprise's project management process capabilities




Standard

Standard
A formal document that describes established norms, methods, processes, and practices.
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Analogous Estimating

Analogous Estimating
A technique for estimating the duration or cost of an activity or a project using historical data from a similar activity or project.
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Apportioned Effort

Apportioned Effort
An activity where effort is allotted proportionately across certain discrete efforts and not divisible into discrete efforts. Apportioned effort is one of three earned value management (EVM) types of activities used to measure work performance.
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Assumption

Assumption
A factor in the planning process that is considered to be true, real, or certain, without proof or demostration.
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Backward Pass

Backward Pass
A critical path method technique for calculating the late start and late finish dates by working backward through the schedule model from the project end date.
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Baseline

Baseline
The approved version of a work product that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison.
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Bottom-Up Estimating

Bottom-Up Estimating
A method of estimating project duration or cost by aggregating the estimates of the lower-level components of the work breakdown structure (WBS).
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Budget At Completion (BAC)

Budget At Completion (BAC)
The sum of all budgets established for the work to be performed.
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Change Control

Change Control
A process whereby modifications to documents, deliverables, or baselines associated with the project are identified, documented, approved, or rejected.
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